Integrated technological and management solutions for wastewater treatment and efficient agricultural reuse in Egypt, Morocco, and Tunisia

Frascari, Dario and Zanaroli, Giulio and Motaleb, Mohamed Abdel and Annen, Giorgio and Belguith, Khaoula and Borin, Sara and Choukr-Allah, Redouane and Gibert, Catherine and Jaouani, Atef and Kalogerakis, Nicolas and Karajeh, Fawzi and Ker Rault, Philippe and Khadra, Roula and Kyriacou, Stathis and Li, Wen-Tao and Molle, Bruno and Mulder, Marijn and Oerte, Emmanuel and Varela Ortega, Consuelo (2018) Integrated technological and management solutions for wastewater treatment and efficient agricultural reuse in Egypt, Morocco, and Tunisia. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management, 14 (4). pp. 447-462. ISSN 1551-3793
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Mediterranean‐African countries (MACs) face a major water crisis. The annual renewable water resources are close to the 500 m3/capita threshold of absolute water scarcity, and water withdrawals exceed total renewable water resources by 30%. Such a low water availability curbs economic development in agriculture, which accounts for 86% of freshwater consumption. The analysis of the current situation of wastewater treatment, irrigation, and water management in MACs and of the research projects targeted to these countries indicates the need for 1) an enhanced capacity to analyze water stress, 2) the development of water management strategies capable of including wastewater reuse, and 3) development of locally adapted water treatment and irrigation technologies. This analysis shaped the MADFORWATER project (, whose goal is to develop a set of integrated technological and management solutions to enhance wastewater treatment, wastewater reuse for irrigation, and water efficiency in agriculture in Egypt, Morocco, and Tunisia. MADFORWATER develops and adapts technologies for the production of irrigation‐quality water from drainage canals and municipal, agro‐industrial, and industrial wastewaters and technologies for water efficiency and reuse in agriculture, initially validated at laboratory scale, to 3 hydrological basins in the selected MACs. Selected technologies will be further adapted and validated in 4 demonstration plants of integrated wastewater treatment and reuse. Integrated strategies for wastewater treatment and reuse targeted to the selected basins are developed, and guidelines for the development of integrated water management strategies in other basins of the 3 target MACs will be produced. The social and technical suitability of the developed technologies and nontechnological tools in relation to the local context is evaluated with the participation of MAC stakeholders and partners. Guidelines on economic instruments and policies for the effective implementation of the proposed water management solutions in the target MACs will be developed.

Document type
Frascari, DarioUniversità di Bologna
Zanaroli, GiulioUniversità di Bologna
Motaleb, Mohamed AbdelNational Water Research Center (NWRC), Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation, Cairo, Egypt
Annen, GiorgioKrofta Waters International, Lugano, Switzerland
Belguith, KhaoulaUniversity of Manouba, Ariana, Tunisia
Borin, SaraDept of Food, Environmental and Nutritional Sciences, University of Milano, Italy
Choukr-Allah, RedouaneSalinity and Plant Nutrition Laboratory, Institut Agronomique et Veterinaire Hassan II, Morocco
Gibert, CatherineRolland Arousers Sprinklers, Mognard, France
Jaouani, AtefUniversite de Tunis El Manar, Institut Superieur des Sciences Biologiques Appliquees de Tunis, Faculte des Sciences de Tunis, Laboratoire Microorganismes et Biomolecules Actives, Tunis
Kalogerakis, NicolasSchool of Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Polytechneioupolis, Chania, Greece
Karajeh, FawziFAO Regional Office for the Near East and North Africa, Cairo, Egypt
Ker Rault, PhilippeWageningen Environmental Research (Alterra), Wageningen, The Netherlands
Khadra, RoulaLand & Water Resources Management Dept, CIHEAM - Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Bari, Valenzano, Italy
Kyriacou, StathisSK Euromarket Ltd, Limassol, Cyprus
Li, Wen-TaoState Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing
Molle, BrunoPlateforme de Recherche et d’experimentation en Sciences et Techniques d’Irrigation, Irstea, Montpellier, France
Mulder, MarijnPNO Consultants BV, Eindhoven, The Netherlands
Oerte, EmmanuelInstitute for Ecopreneurship, University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland, Muttenz
Varela Ortega, ConsueloDepartment of Agricultural Economics, Statistics and Business Management, School of Agricultural, Food and Biosystems Engineering, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Spain
Water reuse ; Wastewater treatment ; Irrigation ; Integrated water management ; North Africa
Deposit date
30 May 2018 09:54
Last modified
23 May 2019 09:14
Project name
MADFORWATER - DevelopMent AnD application of integrated technological and management solutions FOR wasteWATER treatment and efficient reuse in agriculture tailored to the needs of Mediterranean African Countries
Funding program
EC - H2020

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