Decision Support Tool for Water Reclamation Beyond Technical Considerations—Egyptian, Moroccan, and Tunisian Case Studies

Oertlé, Emmanuel and Mueller, Sandra Regina and Choukr-Allah, Redouane and Jaouani, Atef (2020) Decision Support Tool for Water Reclamation Beyond Technical Considerations—Egyptian, Moroccan, and Tunisian Case Studies. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management .
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Abstract

While the Middle East and North African (MENA) region is facing challenges to sustain water security, water reclamation has received increasing consideration as a favorable mitigating solution. Despite the availability of adequate technologies, economic, political, legal, social, and environmental constraints often hamper stakeholders, and especially decision makers, from exploiting the existing potential into solution implementation. In the present paper, a comprehensive assessment for water reclamation and reuse was developed. This assessment consisted of 4 objectives: 1) apply a decision‐support tool (DST) for water reclamation potential for municipal wastewater, 2) apply a DST for simulating and estimating the lifecycle costs of project‐related technologies for water reclamation (municipal and industrial wastewater, as well as drainage canal water), 3) assess the national‐level conditions for water reuse with a multicriteria decision analysis (MCA), and 4) establish exemplary strategies, barriers, and measures for water reuse. The present MCA considered 6 thematic subjects: policy and institution, economy, society, water management, legislation, and environment. The assessment was applied to food and nonfood crop irrigation in Egyptian, Moroccan, and Tunisian case studies. For all defined case studies, adapted treatment trains that could treat wastewater to the desired quality at reasonable costs were identified and are presented in the present paper. Results showed that technological options are available for water reuse, but the concept is not widely implemented in Egypt, Morocco, and Tunisia. The present paper identifies key barriers and drivers for the implementation of water reclamation for irrigation. In particular, the considered countries showed different characteristics regarding efficient water management, water pricing, subsidies and wastewater tariffs, implementation of monitoring and reporting systems, or legal aspects regarding the use of reclaimed water for food crop irrigation. Further exploration of case studies on high potential water reuse and financially affordable wastewater reclamation, particularly case studies that explore the impacts of policies and practices across countries, would be useful for helping the MENA region improve their water security situation.

Abstract
Document type
Article
Creators
CreatorsAffiliationORCID
Oertlé, EmmanuelInstitute for Ecopreneurship, University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland (FHNW), Muttenz, Switzerland0000-0003-4066-9377
Mueller, Sandra ReginaInstitute for Ecopreneurship, University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland (FHNW), Muttenz, Switzerland
Choukr-Allah, RedouaneInstitut Agronomique et Vétérinaire Hassan II, Rabat, Morocco
Jaouani, AtefUniversité de Tunis El Manar Institut Supérieur des Sciences Biologiques Appliquées de Tunis, Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, Laboratoire Microorganismes et Biomolécules Actives, Tunis, Tunisia
Keywords
Water reuse (WR); wastewater recycling; water reclamation; decision support tool (DST); water resources management (WRM), multi-criteria analysis (MCA); Middle East and North Africa (MENA)
Subjects
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1002/ieam.4303
Deposit date
07 Sep 2020 13:39
Last modified
28 Feb 2021 22:00
Project name
MADFORWATER - DevelopMent AnD application of integrated technological and management solutions FOR wasteWATER treatment and efficient reuse in agriculture tailored to the needs of Mediterranean African Countries
Funding program
EC - H2020
URI

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